The need for controlled temperature in buildings and other enclosed spaces is increasing becoming a necessity rather than a luxury. Climate control offers comfort and good health, and prevents mould formation and damage from harmful organisms. Facilities housing precious and antique artifacts have to be necessarily under climatic control to prevent damage and deterioration of the articles. This requires special technical equipment to be installed, which may vary in size, design and functionality to cater to specific needs. To ensure that the critical tasks of installing, monitoring, maintaining, repairing and trouble shooting of climate control systems are professionally managed, there is a demand for skilled and specially trained personnel, who are generally referred to HVAC technicians. HVAC is an abbreviation for heating ventilation Air Conditioning.
As the demand for trained people in the field is currently huge, the scope for a financially rewarding career is bright particularly for formally trained personnel. Formal training can be acquired by attending a technical school or by working as an apprentice. A license granted by the North American Technician Excellence is a prerequisite to work as a professional HVAC technician.
Technological advancements in the field have resulted in the equipment and machines becoming increasingly complex each day. If you are interested in a career as a HVAC technician, the importance of enrolling in one of the many technical schools in the country cannot be ignored. An HVAC course at a technical school provides greater exposure to the latest developments, theoretically and practically and creates enhanced opportunities for employment. However, on the job training is still considered a viable option by many who prefer to acquire knowledge and learn the skills by working under senior technicians as assistants.
Being formally trained as an HAVAC technician would require taking classes in the science stream in physics, chemistry, mechanical drawing, electronics and computers. A study of the details of design and construction of the various types of equipment is also necessary as are blue print reading and a basic understanding of plumbing. As most climate control systems make use of sophisticated control systems, a study in electronics is essential for becoming a qualified technician.
One of the most difficult tasks for a HVAC technician is the determination of the size of the unit required to provide the desired level of heating or cooling appropriate to the size of the building. To identify a unit of a fitting capacity that would be most efficient and would give optimum energy consumption is a difficult task. Quite often, a heating or air conditioning unit is simply replaced with a unit of similar capacity after the renovation of a house or building. This may turn out to be either inefficient or expensive depending on the physical changes effected during renovation. This can be best analyzed by a formally trained HVAC technician.
The duties of a HVAC technician include servicing and installation of equipment, at locations that are not easily accessible and therefore, might require climbing high above the ground. Robustness of health and the ability to withstand physical strain are essential attributes for a person working in this field.
The prospects for a skilled HVAC technician are bright from the perspective of securing employment as also setting up an own business. There is no sign of any slackening in the demand for professionals in this specialized area. On the contrary, the number of new constructions requiring new equipment to be installed is on the rise. In addition, all equipment already installed stand in need of maintenance, for which skilled and knowledgeable people are currently in short supply in the US.
The average hourly earnings for a HVAC technician as per available statistics based on a study conducted in 2002 is $16.78.There are opportunities for securing periodic maintenance contracts as an HVAC contractor.
It can sometimes be difficult to find the right dog house for your dog even though today there are plenty of choices available today. Most ready built doghouse are built mostly of the same design and model with standard sizes.
If you want something unique for your doghouse, something different from the other dog house in your neighbourhood, you can try building your own custom dog house.
There are several dog house plans online that you can follow and you can always alter it to your liking. It is also cheaper and the building materials are usually quite readily available.
If you do not have the skills or the time, then you can also get custom built dog houses. There are a few websites such as doghouseplans.com that offers custom built dog houses to your design and preferences.
It has become more popular in the past few years because people realized dogs are a part of the family and want them to live in specially designed doghouses that match their own house. There are now more specialized companies that can tailor and built exquisitely detailed doghouse for more affordable prices compared to just a few years ago.
Of course, a custom built doghouse is still more expensive compared to ready off the shelf doghouses. However, there are a few ways to save some money such as using cheaper wooden building materials as well as cheaper models of dog Air Conditioning and heating systems.
Regardless of your budget, you should construct a dog house that is warm, dry and comfortable for your dog. Most modern materials used to build dog houses are treated to prevent rot and rain from seeping into the wood and corroding them.
Alternatively, plastic doghouses are also becoming more and more popular these days. They are cheap and highly resistance to corrosion from the weather. They are also easier to clean compared to houses made of wood.
Driving an automobile is a luxury that most of us take for granted. Automobiles are the primary means of transportation in United States, with ninety percent of American adults owning or previously owning a car or truck. What we don’t realize is that operating a car or truck is a responsibility that can bring serious consequences. Every year in the United States alone, more than ten thousand vehicular accidents occur. An average of four hundred Americans die each year as the result of automotive accidents. It’s a tragic figure, especially when you consider that many of these accidents could be prevented with proper maintenance and routine check-ups. Keeping your car well-maintained means reducing the risk of mishap or even death, and protecting your loved ones and fellow drivers.
Before hitting the road, be sure to conduct these checkups regularly:
Most Americans use all-season tires. These tires should carry you safely from season to season, but it is imperative that you check the tires regularly for wear or damage. Ideally, tires should be checked on a weekly basis.
The brake system serves one main purposes: to slow down or stop the car when it is needed. If you step on the brake pedal and it goes all the way to the floor, you’ve got trouble. Late-model automobiles are equipped with a brake warning light. This dashboard indicator will light up if something is wrong with your brake system. If your brake warning light indicates trouble, it is imperative that you check the brake system immediately. Consult your owner’s manual for maintenance advice, and call an experienced mechanic for repairs. Brake repairs or replacements are no job for a weekend or hobby mechanic.
In 2005, over 2,300 pedestrians died because drivers suffered eye problems or had faulty headlights in the automobiles. Properly maintained vehicle headlights help you drive safely, and see more clearly. Replace your headlight bulbs at least once per year.
Many people don’t think of changing their wiper blades until it is too late. This is one of the easiest and most inexpensive parts of the car to maintain. Change your wiper blades twice a year, in the spring and just before winter.
There are 10 common reasons why automobile owners visit the mechanic:
• Electronic/Ignition control
• Electrical problem
• Brake system
• Oil change/filters/lube
• Exhaust system
• Radiator repairs
• Fuel system/carburetor
• Air Conditioning system
Routine check ups and proper maintenance of a car be expensive, and budget restrictions are often the leading factors in keeping car owners from living up to their responsibilities. This does not need to be a problem. The key is in knowing how to save on car maintenance and repairs. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) confirmed that $20 billion has been wasted on unnecessary auto repairs due to fraud and incompetence.
If your car is not performing to its full potential, remember the following tips to help you save money on repairs:
Be your car’s best friend, and you can save a bundle. By conducting regular preventative maintenance, such as regular oil changes and radiator flushes, you prevent unnecessary damage to the car and save a lot of money in the long run. Regular checkups by a qualified repairperson will keep your car running better, longer.
Even automobiles need to take a break now and then. If you drive your car everyday the miles will add up quickly, and damage can occur prematurely. To avoid this, consider carpooling with friends and coworkers. Ask around to form your own carpool group. You’ll all save on maintenance, and you’ll be able to pool your fuel and parking expenses.
Before choosing a mechanic to repair your car, be sure to get a written estimate. If the mechanic wants more than your budget can afford, shop around. Compare estimates to find the best deal. Just be sure that you are paying for quality service.
Do It Yourself
You’ll be surprised at how much you can accomplish after doing a little research. Read over your owner’s manual from time to time. Learn as much as you can about your car. Understand potential problems and how to solve them. For example, that mysterious clunking noise might be bothersome, but could be as simple to fix as tightening a bolt. Regular maintenance tasks like oil changes and radiator flushes are fairly easy to do if you understand your vehicle and take the time to do the job properly.
As an automobile owner, you have a responsibility to keep your car properly maintained at all times. Consider it an investment in your car’s future, and remember that it could save a life.
Visiting a Christmas tree farm and buying a live tree grown in New Jersey can be a memorable holiday experience for the entire family? The process can be any where from an hour to a good part of the day, depending on what you and your family wants to gain from the experience.
The choices for selecting a New Jersey grown live tree are many. You can choose to cut your own tree, or pick a live tree and have it cut for you, or buy a live tree already cut, or buy a living tree you can plant.
To extend the experience to a family fun event, you can venture off to a Christmas tree farm that offers sleigh rides, hay rides and related winter events and fun.
A fresh-cut Christmas tree not only will bring warmth, beauty and the rich scents of the season to your home, but also will last throughout the holidays if given proper care.
Christmas trees are a renewable resource. They are grown as a crop; planted, sheared, and cultivated to be harvested for your enjoyment! Where each tree is cut, a new seedling will be planted. Christmas tree farms not only provide beautiful greenbelts throughout New Jersey, they also are environmentally sound. They consume huge amounts of carbon dioxide and reintroduce large quantities of oxygen into the atmosphere, thus cleansing the air that we breathe. One acre of Christmas trees produces the daily oxygen requirement for 18 people.
The selection of a live Christmas tree.
When choosing a tree, select one that best suits your needs. Determine where will it be located in the home, and what type of ornaments you have – are they heavy or light? These considerations will help you select the species, the height, shape and density. Amongst the variety of species of Christmas trees grown in New Jersey, the best choices for needle retention are all the pines; Austrian, Scotch, White and Mexican Border. The Douglas-fir, Concolor, and Fraser Fir are also excellent. The Colorado Blue Spruce is very good, and the Norway and White Spruces are fair.
It is difficult to gauge the height of trees in the field. Check with the Christmas tree farm, they usually have measuring sticks available. Even though you cannot cut your tree exactly even with the ground and you will need to cut an additional bit off the bottom of your tree when you get home, your stand will add about four inches and your top piece another four inches to the final height of your tree. Therefore, it is recommended that you choose a tree that is somewhat shorter than the height of your ceiling.
The Care of the live Christmas tree
With a few simple steps, you can enjoy your tree throughout the holiday season!
A fresh cut tree, brought home in advance of bringing it indoors for decorating, should be placed in a container of water, in a cool shaded area, sheltered from the wind. If kept outside, make sure the water supply does not freeze. Before bringing it indoors, cut off an inch from the butt end. This fresh cut will enable the tree to soak up water. Put the tree in a stand, which can hold one to two gallons of water. Since fresh cut trees absorb a pint to a quart of water each day, check water level at least once daily and always keep water level above the cut end. Always keep the butt of the tree in water. If it has been out of water for more than a few hours, the sap will seal the cut trunk and it will no longer absorb water. Keeping a tree stand filled with water will prevent needle drop and prolong the tree’s freshness and color.
Select a location inside your home that is not too close to a fireplace, heat duct or radiator. Place tree in tree stand with plastic netting on. This makes it easier to move and straighten tree. Netting can be removed once the tree is set up.
The tree will take a couple of hours to return to its natural shape once the netting is removed. Fill the stand with water. On the initial fill, warm or hot water is beneficial.
The care and planting of a balled & burlapped tree.
If you have selected a balled & burlapped (dug) Christmas tree, several days prior to being brought indoors, it needs to be placed in an unheated, protected enclosure (utility building, garage, carport, basement) or on the northeast side of the house. This conditioning process adjusts the tree to the effects of rapid temperature and humidity changes that occur indoors. Before bringing the tree indoors, place it in a washtub or similar waterproof container.
To help stabilize it, sand or gravel may be filled in around the root ball. Keep root ball moist; approximately a pint to a quart of water, daily, will sustain a 5 to 6 ft. tree. Ideally, it’s best to keep a dug tree in a 65 to 68 degree indoor environment and for no longer than seven days.
There are numerous hostels in New York City, and they are in every district (area) of the Metropolitan area. As with most accommodations, location will play into the price per night.
Hostels are a clean and safe substitute to a typical hotel room. Most hostels have Air Conditioning, complimentary luggage storage available, no curfews and 24 hour reception. Almost all will provide you with clean linens and towels for your use while there. And some even put forward a complimentary breakfast. Some hostels have a kitchen and/or laundry room that you can use as well.
Some hostels have key card access, car parking and tourist information available, as well as a “local” to get advice from. In addition, most are now offering internet access for those of you that need to be connected or want to write home to tell them how outstanding this New York travel deal is!
Then there are those hostels that provide more superior services and produce concierge services, rooms with a private bathroom, and access to workout facilities and a pool in addition to the other services.
Most hostels are 18 years old and up, some allow 16 year olds and up and there are only a few hostels that are child-friendly, but this opens up another avenue to explore for accommodations for families searching for a New York travel deal. For example, Hostelling International-New York is a child-friendly place.
A really fun hostel to stay at is the Chelsea Star Hotel (yes, it is a hostel). It happens to have been Madonna’s home in the 80″s. They have a Madonna themed room among others. The dormitory beds are about $20 USD per night and it located close to Madison Square Garden. This is a really stellar NY travel deal.
Fantastic price and fantastic location.
There are over 40 different hostels around the New York metropolitan area and you can reserve them ahead of time on the internet or over the phone. For the price, convenience and service, a hostel is an awesome New York travel deal. Certainly, one you should keep in mind when planning your next trip to New York City.
It is difficult to imagine going through a hot, summer day without the comfort of an air conditioner. However, to cut down on the cost we choose to air condition only those rooms which are used more frequently. We might even go for the split air conditioners so that we can drag it to the room we want to be air conditioned. But there are events, when we simply can’t do without Air Conditioning all over.
Suppose, you are having a wedding at your place and there will be a lot of guests coming down. Then you would need to air condition all your rooms as your whole house would be practically filled. You can also have a meeting room in your office which you don’t think deserves an investment on an air conditioner as you hardly entertain visitors. But there are times when someone will come and you have to make him feel comfortable because of your business interests. Then you will be required to install an air conditioner in the meeting room.
Temporary installation of air conditioners are also required during the high school or college functions. You surely wouldn’t be investing in buying new air conditioners for these events. There are numerous air conditioner rental companies who lease out air conditioners according to your needs. You can hire them for long or short periods and you can even decide on what capacity air conditioner you will require. Generally the fees are paid in monthly installments, but you can also arrange for daily installments.
The high velocity air conditioners do have their own pros and cons. While there are a few advantages over the conventional forced air system, there are definitely a few drawbacks. The obvious advantage is that in high velocity air conditioners since the air is forced out at a much higher speed there are no hot spots that remain in the room. With the conventional air flow system, since the air moves much slowly there are dead spaces in the rooms if you do not have the vents positions in the absolutely proper places.
If you need an air conditioner contact the rental service well in advance, especially if you will be needing the air conditioner during the summer months. The demands are high, and the rental services may run out of units. Once you contact them they send over an expert to your place so that he can assess the room and recommend the right kind of air conditioner for it. Once both the parties agree on a price, a contract is signed and the air conditioner is installed before you have your event.
There are companies which might charge you a refundable security deposit. If there are any damages to the air conditioner they deduct the reparation from the security deposit. The fee that is charged depends on the length of time you are hiring the air conditioner for, and the brand you choose to have.
A musty odor is clearly not a desirable quality for a house, it tends to give the impression of a dirty place and whilst it might actually not be noticeable to the owners it will almost certainly be so to visitors creating entirely the wrong sort of impression. Furthermore musty odors can also indicate the growth of mould which can trigger allergic reactions in some people and can be most discomforting.
Musty odors can come and go dependent upon the time of year and the weather. In the summer for example when the Air Conditioning is left running a great deal the air flow may eliminate the musty odor, however the cause may remain to come back and haunt you in the darker seasons.
Basements are often then source of such musty odors and the odor may have been caused by problems such as high humidity, cracks in walls allowing moisture in or merely from condensation. In order to prevent and stop the musty odor it is important to find the primary cause although bear in mind there may well be more than factor causing the problem. The following will enable you to track down the cause of the problem most quickly:
To prevent condensation on water pipes which can be a source of moisture particularly in winter months is to cover the water pipes with an insulated pipe wrap, these are relatively cheap and are an easy way to prevent moisture dripping of the pipes and onto the floor.
Often house basements due to their lack of air flow build up high humidity levels and cause dampness, This causes the musty smell which can then rise throughout the house. Installation of a basement dehumidifier can prevent this problem from occurring and remove excess moisture, just make sure you have a drain available in order to take away the excess water gathered by the dehumidifier otherwise you may have to purchase a dehumidifier with a hose pipe and pump.
Check that any moisture suspected to be from condensation on pipes isn’t actually from tiny holes. This problem can be solved most simply by attaching a pipe leak clamp if the hole is very small an epoxy compound can solve the problem with little problem, ask your local building supplier about both of them.
A more serious problem is that of weeping walls where moisture simply seeps through from the outside. The following process should help eliminate moisture coming from weeping walls: Ensure a dry forecast. Run a dehumidifier and fans to dry the walls. Using a brush with strong stiff bristles scrub the weeping areas with trisodium phosphate, which can be found at most regular home improvement stores and will clean the surface for you, allow the scrubbed walls to dry again completely. Seal the walls with a latex concrete sealer following the manufacturers instructions. This procedure on its own should prevent all future weeping, if not then you’d better bring in a professional.
Cracks in walls are also another potential source of moisture and may occur even in very new houses. The cracks may be classed as active and likely to widen further or hopefully inactive and not likely to widen. Most cracks are not major and can be done with ready mixed concrete easily enough and a knife.
By following the above suggestions, focusing on your specific problems and with addition of a dehumidifier it is likely that you will be able to solve even the most persistent of household musty smells.
Some people want to visit New York City and spend a noteworthy amount of cash in the course of “living it up.” Others are looking for a New York travel deal so that they can use their budgeted “trip money” in the most prolific way possible. It is for those of you who are in quest of a NY travel deal that this article is written.
In most substantial cities (including New York City) around the world, there is a little known secret that will help you glean a fantastic way to retain cash on your next trip to NYC. This lesser known New York travel deal is a hostel.
A hostel is a low budget accommodation that usually caters to a fun, uncomplicated traveler. A quality description is a cross between a Bed & Breakfast establishment and a dorm.
Some are located in renovated townhomes in The City, some are located in YMCAs, and some are cozy guesthouses. Some are in residential areas, while some are positioned in the center of the action in The Big Apple.
Most hostels offer the choice of a dorm-style room or a private room. Here is one of the reasons why this a New York travel deal: the dorm-style rooms are really inexpensive! Some go for as low as $15 USD per night! An amazing NY travel deal, to be sure.
However, the private rooms are also much less expensive than a typical hotel room. Some start as low as $60 USD per night. Even this is a remarkable New York travel deal. Where even discounted lodging in The City starts around $99 USD per night.
Let’s be honest, few New York tourists spend a lot of time in their hotel rooms. Most NYC tourists use their accommodations only to sleep, shower and change clothes in order to go out again.
If this is you, then think of how much extra budgeted “trip money” you will have to spend out on the town or in other areas (maybe airfare).
Two types of pipe insulation are commonly available. The first is made out of a glass fibre or mineral wool material similar to that used for insulating loft floors, but supplied in bandage form (75 to lOOmmI3 to 4in wide and 1 OmmJ3/Bin thick) generally with a flimsy plastic backing.
The second type comes in the form of split sleeves which are made from some sort of foamed material — usually plastic. Both types of pipe insulation have their advantages and disadvantages (see below) and both types are cheap And since there is no reason why they can’t be used side by side on the same pipe system, you’ll almost certainly find that the easiest way to insulate your pipework is by using lengths of both.
Insulating Pipes - DIY Step-By-Step GuideFitting bandage insulation
The bandage type is fitted by wrapping it around the pipe in a spiral, with each turn overlapping the previous one by at least 10mm (/8jfl). It doesn’t matter which way round the plastic backing goes. Make sure that the bandage is sufficiently tight to prevent air circulating between the turns, but don’t pull it too tight or you will reduce its effectiveness. When starting or finishing each roll, and at regular intervals in between, hold it in place using plastic adhesive tape or string. Tape or tie the bandage, too, on vertical pipe runs and on bends as these are places where the turns are likely to separate. And don’t forget to lag any stop-valves properly — only the handle should be left visible.
Apart from being rather more time consuming to install than split-sleeve insulation the main drawback with the bandage type is that it is difficult to wrap round pipes in awkward places, such as those that run under floorboards. For pipes like these you will generally (md that sleeves are more suitable since once fitted they can be pushed into position.Fitting split-sleeve insulation
Split-sleeve insulation normally comes in 1 m (3ft 3m) or 2m (6ff 6in) lengths. It is available in a variety of sizes to fit piping from 15mm (1/2in) to 35mm (11/2in) in diameter. The thickness of the insulating foam is generally around 12mm (½in). Make sure that you buy the right size sleeve for your pipes — if the sleeves don’t fit snugly round your pipework they won’t provide satisfactory insulation.
Both flexible and rigid sleeves are available, but as the rigid type isn’t much use for pipe- work that bends frequently, you’d probably be better off using the flexible variety.
Fitting the sleeves is very straightforward. You simply prise apart the slit that runs along the length of the sleeve and slip the insulation over the pipe. It’s advisable to tape the sleeve at intervals, arid you must do so at joins. At bends, where the sleeves will tend to come apart, you should tape the split lengthways.
Once sleeve insulation has been fitted, it can easily be slid along a length of pipe to protect a part of it that may be hard to get at. However, you should bear in mind that it won’t be able to get beyond any pipe clips, very sharp bends or bulky joints it may encounter.
You’ll find that most flexible sleeves will readily slide round curves and even 90° bends made using soldered fittings, but whenever you run up against problems in the form of bulky compression elbows or tee connectors the sleeves will have to be cut accordingly. However, in some circumstances you might well find that bandage insulation provides the better solution.
To fit round a 900 elbow the sleeve should be cut in two and the sleeve ends then cut at an angle of 450 before being slipped over the pipe. You should then tape over the resulting join.
Worried by the thought of your next heating bill? Concerned by the prospect of your pipes freezing in winter? Proper insulation could well be the answer — and what’s more it’s cheap and easy to install.
Insulation is important because it reduces I heat loss, and when properly applied to your water system it benefits you in a number of ways. Firstly, it saves you money by slowing down the rate at which heat is lost trom the pipes and tanks of your hot water system.
Secondly, by reducing the heat loss from your cold water system (and even the coldest water contains some heat) it tends to keep your cold water warmer in winter, thereby minimizing the risk of frozen pipes. Warmer cold water in winter also means that it takes less energy to heat it up to the desired temperature when it enters your hot water tank. In this respect, too, insulation saves you money.
So for all the above reasons you should consider properly insulating your pipes and tanks. The cost of the materials you will need is small and the potential savings great. And if you have already insulated your loft floor then this is one job you really must attend to. It has to be done because the temperature of your loft in winter will now be only marginally higher than that of the air outside, which means that the danger of any exposed pipe- work freezing in cold weather is greatly increased.
Ideally you should therefore insulate your pipes and tanks before you tackle the loft floor. And don’t forget that the risk of frozen pipes also applies to pipes in the cellar, and anywhere else where they might be subject to extremes of cold.
Before purchasing the insulation material for your pipes and tanks, work out how much you are likely to need. Most tanks will have their capacity and/or their dimensions marked on them somewhere — if yours don’t then measure them yourself.
You will also need to calculate the combined length of the pipes you intend insulating and establish what their diameter is — though this last measurement is only important if you plan to use split sleeve insulation (see below). As you’ll want the insulation on your tanks to overlap that which you fit to any pipes that run into them, it’s best to start by insulating your pipework.
Replacing a bath may seem to be an ambitious do-it-yourself project but it is well within the capabilities of the determined home handyman prepared to tackle the job carefully and logically.
Here is what is involved.
As with many other plumbing projects the most difficult part is likely to be the removal of the old fitting rather than the installation of the new one.
Plumbing In A Bath - Checking It Out First
The old bath will almost certainly be made of enameled cast iron. The once-white enamel may be discolored and wearing away, and may even reveal rusting bare metal underneath, Green or brown colored stains beneath the taps indicate a long-neglected need for rewashering. The taps may look out of date and have worn chromium plating. The finish of the bath may be old and unattractive and the bath itself not paneled in.
Checking it out
First have a look at the existing bath. If there are sides or end panels, strip them off and examine, with the aid of an electric torch, the water supply pipes and the waste and the overflow arrangements in the cramped and badly lit space between the foot of the bath and the wall. You will see that the water supply pipes connect the threaded tails of the taps by means of brass ‘swivel tap connectors’ or ‘cap and lining joints’.
Check whether the water supply pipes are made of copper or lead by scraping their surface with the blade of a pocket knife. If this reveals the characteristic grey sheen of lead you should think of replacing the piping. If you do want to retain the lead piping you will have to call in a qualified plumber — it’s not an easy task. If the pipes are of copper you should be able to tackle the entire project without professional aid.
The overflow from a modern bath is taken, by means of a flexible pipe, to the waste trap. In the past, the overflow pipe often simply led through the external wall, and was the source of incurable bathroom draughts. If your bath’s overflow is like this, you’ll have to cut it off flush with the wall.
If the bath has adjustable feet, apply some penetrating oil to the screws. Once they begin to move, lowering the level of the bath before you attempt to remove it can help to prevent damage to the wall tiling.
To avoid too long a disruption of the domestic hot and cold water supplies you can fit the taps, waste and trap into the new bath before removing the old one.
Slip a flat plastic washer over the tail of each tap and insert the tails through the holes provided for them. A mixer usually has one large flat washer or gasket with two holes — one for each tap tail. Beneath the rim of the bath, slip ‘top hat’ or ‘spacer’ washers over the tails to accommodate the protruding shanks of the taps. Screw on the back-nuts and tighten them.
Bed the waste flange onto plumber’s putty or non-setting mastic, secure the back-nut and connect up the trap. Then connect up the overflow pipe.
Plumbing In A Bath
Removing the old bath may well be the most difficult part of the procedure. Turn off the hot and cold water supplies and drain the distribution pipes from the bath taps. If you haven’t done so already, remove the bath panel to give access to the plumbing at the foot of the bath.
You can try to unscrew the back-nuts holding the taps in position, but it’s generally easier to undo the nuts that connect the distribution pipes to the tails of the taps. In order to reach the one nearest the wall you may have to dismantle the overflow, either by unscrewing it or, if it is taken through the wall, by cutting it off flush with the wall. Then undo the waste connection.
The bath is now disconnected from the water supply pipes and from the branch waste pipe and can be pulled away from the wall. Unless you particularly want to save the old bath and have some strong helpers, do not attempt to remove it from the room or the house in one piece. It is very heavy. The best course of action is to break it into manageable pieces. Drape an old blanket over it to prevent flying chips of enamel and wear goggles to protect the eyes. Then, with a club hammer, break the bath up into pieces that you can easily carry away.
Place the new plastic bath in position and assemble the cradle or other support exactly as recommended by the manufacturer. It is most unlikely that the tails of the new taps will coincide with the position of the tap connectors of the old distribution pipes. If they don’t, the easiest way of making the connections is by means of bendable copper pipe.
This is corrugated copper tubing — easily bent by hand. It is obtainable in 15mm and 22mm sizes and either with two plain ends for connection to soldered capillary or compression joints, or with one plain end and a swivel tap connector at the other. For this particular job two lengths of 22mm corrugated copper pipe will be required, each with one end plain and one end fitted with a swivel tap connector.
Offer the corrugated pipe lengths up to the tap tails and cut back the distribution pipes to the length required for connection to the plain ends. Leave these pipes slightly too long rather than too short. The corrugated pipe can be bent to accommodate a little extra length. Now connect the plain ends to the cut distribution pipes using either soldered capillary or Type ‘A’ compression couplings.
The chances are that the distribution pipes will be 3/4jfl imperial size. If you use compression fittings an adaptor— probably simply a larger olive — will be needed for connection to a 22mm coupling. If you use soldered capillary fittings, special 3/4in to 22mm couplings must be used. Remember to keep the blowtorch flame well away from the plastic of the bath. Connect up the swivel tap connectors of the corrugated pipe and the overflow of the bath. Do this in a logical order. First connect the tap connector to the further tap. A fiber washer inside the nut of the tap connector will ensure a watertight joint. Then connect up the flexible overflow pipe of the combined waste and-overflow fitting to the bath’s overflow outlet. Finally connect the nearer tap to the nearer tap connector.
If you have installed new pipework then you can install the entire trap, waste and water supply pipe spurs before moving the bath into position. Whatever you have decided upon, finish making all the connections, then reinstate the water supply and check for leaks.
The level of the positioned bath should now be checked using a spirit level, and adjustments made (you’ll need a spanner to set the adjustable feet). When all is level, fit the side and end panels in position and the job is finished.
It is possible to replace your cast iron bath with a new one made of the same material, but more modern in styling. However, these baths are expensive and very heavy indeed. Carrying one into the bathroom and fitting it requires considerable strength (you’d need at least one strong helper) as well as care.
There are other snags about enamelled cast iron baths. They normally have a slippery base that can make them dangerous to use — particularly by the very young and the elderly, though some are available with a non-slip surface. Furthermore, the material of which they are made rapidly conducts the heat away from the water and while this didn’t matter too much in the days when energy was plentiful and cheap, large amounts of hot water cost rather more today.
Replacing A Bath - The Alternatives
One economical alternative is an enamelled pressed steel bath. This is lighter and cheaper than enamelled cast iron but can be more easily damaged in storage or installation.
For do-it-yourself installation a plastic bath is the obvious choice. These are made of acrylic plastic sheet, sometimes reinforced with glass fiber. They are available in a number of attractive colours and, as the colour extends right through the material of which they are made, any surface scratches can be easily polished out. They are light in weight and one man can quite easily carry one upstairs for installation. The plastic of which they are made is a poor conductor of heat which means that they are both comfortable and economical to use. Many of them have a non-slip base to make them safe.
But plastic baths do have their snags. They are easily damaged by extreme heat. You should be beware of using a blow torch in proximity to one and a lighted cigarette should never be rested, even momentarily, on the rim. A fault of early plastic baths was their tendency to creak and sag when filled with hot water and, sometimes, when you got into them. This has now been overcome by the manufacturers who provide substantial frames or cradles for support; but these frames must be assembled and fixed exactly as recommended.
A combined plastic waste and overflow assembly is likely to be the choice nowadays for any bath, and is obligatory with a plastic bath. If a rigid metal trap is used with a plastic bath, the material of the bath could be damaged as hot water causes unequal expansion.
You obviously won’t want to re-use the old bath taps and will probably opt for either individual modern 3/4in bath pillar taps or a bath mixer. A mixer should be chosen only if the cold water supply is taken from the same cold water storage cistern that supplies the hot water system. It should not be used where the cold water supply to the bathroom comes directly from the mains supply.